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History of Tibet is not much recorded one, but it has long oral transmission history. It can go as much back up to how first human being are given birth by Monkey and ogress, in Valley of Yarlung Tsangpo River. It can be called as Yarlung Tsangpo civilization. Recent research found out first human settle in Tibet plateau are during Paleolithic Age.

Tibetan history photo

Tibet was first ruled by different tribe leader for many century, and later join into different kingdom. Nyatri tsanpo, the first king of Tibet, unified whole area around central Tibet in 237 BC.

Beginning 7th century, Tibet was in form of five major kingdom, Tubo kingdom, Shangshung kingdom, Sumba kingdom, Menyak – Gyalrong Kingdom, Asha kingdom. Later Sontsan Gampo, who unified most of Western and central Tibet and formed Tibet empire.

Till ninth centuries, under respective Tibet Emperor, Tibet is a unified empire exercising power over an area well beyond the Tibetan plateau, including important regions on the Silk Road such as Kashgar and Khotan. In 763 a Tibetan army even invades Tang China and briefly captures the capital at Xi’an.

In 877, because of struggle between emperor and local kings about their state religion, also influence from external powers , lead to death of Emperor Oudum Tsen (Lang Dharma), ending the Tubo Kingdom with starting 200 years wars and decentralizations period.

The Sakya Dynasty tottered in the latter period of the Yuan Dynasty and was replaced by the Phaktu Dynasty in 1354. First king Phaktu Jangchup Gyaltsen restart whole system with classic Tibet empire administration and with his successor, ruled Tibet till Tsangpa Regine start in 1618.

Ganden Podrang Dynasty, start in 1642 with help lhasang kahn and Mongol army, the khan gave the country to the Dalai Lama as a spiritual gift. The abbot is to rule it with Mongol military support.

As temporal and spiritual head, the fifth Dalai Lama moves his official residence from Drepung Monastery and begins the construction of a Potala palace on the site of the Potala castle built by Sontsan Gampo. The pattern of rule by the Dalai Lama, with priest and patron relations with Manchu and Mongol, it lasts till the demise of the Manchu empire in the early 20th century.

In 1949, People’s Republic of China was founded. The government stuck to the policy of peaceful liberation of Tibet. As a result, Tibet and china signed seventeen point agreements. The policy of regional autonomy was exercised in Tibet. In September 1965, Tibet Autonomous Region was established.

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